Human Being Evolved From Apes
There are still many people, especially in America known as Creationists who do not believe in evolution. They have tried to prove the biblical flood and Noah’s Ark were real. But they have failed to prove them so far.
Creationists claim that there is geological evidence that the Grand Canyon area of the American West in Arizona, the homeland of a few Native American tribes, the last being the Navajo people, familiar scenes of many cowboy films was formed as the result of a flash flood caused by Abraham’s God. However, they are unable to give a reasonable evaluation of the physical evidence, showing that their theory has a foundation.
Another stunt of the creationists was the search for the remnants of Noah’s Ark in the mountains of Ararat in Turkey. That has also recently come to a dead end.
At least two seasoned archaeologists who have made numerous expeditions to Mount Ararat in search of Noah’s Ark are now throwing cold water on the claim that the Old Testament vessel has finally been discovered, saying it’s a hoax involving wood hauled in from the Black Sea region. A recent televised documentary showed that there is no such a thing.
For those who are not familiar with the Bible, Noah’s Ark was a big boat built of wood by a biblical character called Noah on the command of God. He was told to gather all the animals in pairs to save them before the God flooded the Earth to get rid of wicked men who were committing sins.
Noah was 500 years old when he became the father of three sons – Shem, Ham and Japheth (Genesis 5:32, New International Version). When the flood came he was 600 years old [2370 BCE] (Genesis 7:6, International Standard Version, 2012)
This is the belief many Bible-believing Christians hold. According to them and the Bible, the Earth we live on is only 6,000 (six thousand) years old, and the flood happened in the beginning of its creation. According to Geologists the Earth is at least 4.5 billion years old.
Noah’s flood of 376 days would have wiped out all human beings, animals and plants except Noah and his family. Noah had presumably only one wife whose name is not mentioned in the Bible. So, all the human beings in the world have descended from the children of Noah’s three children.
The Grand Canyon is the most recognizable landmark on earth. Photographs of the Grand Canyon were taken from the space Shuttle Discovery flight in February 1984.
There has been a lot of debate when it was formed in terms of millions of years. The new theory published in 2011, contends that the ancient northeast river system carved the Grand Canyon as early as 70 million years ago when the sea was last present here. When the landscape was lifted up from its seabed an initial river system developed and drained to the northeast.
Against this background there is scientific evidence that the evolution is real and that the existence of Neanderthals in Europe and Homo erectus in Asia. Neanderthals were one of the ancestors of modern man who became extinct 33,000 years ago. They are real and are real and have been proven genetically and archaeologically. Our (Homo sapiens) and chimpanzee’s common ancestors died 6.4 million years ago.
In January 2013, George Church, a Harvard professor of Genetics and now of ‘Synthetic biology’ has told Der Spiegel, a German magazine that cloning of Neanderthal men (more humanlike than ape) would be possible in a few years time. He has already gathered enough fossil bones to reconstruct the DNA of the human species largely extinct. All he needs is to find an adventurous surrogate mother.
There is a possibility of raising the Neanderthals from the dead. This sounds preposterous, but the professor is not loony and is quite serious. He is a much respected geneticist, who was behind the Human Genome Project that enabled researchers to map out and identify genes associated with dozens of genetic diseases. He is now switched on to a new field called ‘synthetic biology’, which aims to create synthetic DNA and organisms in the laboratory
His main purpose is to alter the human genome that could also provide the answers to curing diseases such as cancer and HIV and hold the key to living to 120 years of age. He argues that he is not “playing God” and “we have already played God” with medicine, agriculture and everything. Science is not far off from putting amazing bio-machines that can clean pollution and fight diseases and make fuel for cars.
Professor Church says he would begin by artificially creating Neanderthal DNA, based on a genetic code found in fossil remains. He would then put the DNA into stem cells taken from a human embryo in the first stages of life, before injecting the cells back into the embryo. This ‘neo-Neanderthal’ embryo would be implanted in the womb of a surrogate mother.
It sounds like the a reborn Neanderthal man might turn out to be like Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein or anatomically freak human good only for circus shows. His brain would not have been as developed as ours and he will be a misfit in the society. Besides, making another species of human beings could throw our ethical system into chaos causing racial apartheid.
Prof Church discusses his idea in his book, Regenesis: How Synthetic Biology Will Reinvent Nature and Ourselves.
At the moment cloning humans is illegal in Britain as it is ethically unacceptable.. But scientists have successfully cloned various animals, most famously Dolly the sheep in Edinburgh, some cattle, goats, dogs, horses and others though had many failures. Many clones that did survive were plagued with health problems, stemming from copying errors in their DNA, and died young and in pain.
Once some obstacles, particularly ethical problems are solved cloning of human beings is only a matter of time as genetic science is one of the fastest moving areas of human knowledge because of its potential. DNA sequencing is now a million times faster since I wrote about it in my book eight years ago.
There is very little science cannot do once you know the technical know-how. Since 1980’s the common bacteria Escherichia coli (E. coli) that live normally in our gut has been engineered to produce Human insulin in industrial quantities. Scientists inserted the human gene for insulin into the DNA of the E. coli and they have been producing insulin ever so happily.
Researchers with the U.S. Department of Energy’s Joint BioEnergy Institute (JBEI) have engineered the first strains of E. coli bacteria that can digest switchgrass (a perennial tall grass native to North America) biomass and synthesize its sugars into gasoline, diesel and jet fuel.
Genetic engineering can create bacteria to make other fuels such as petroleum and jet fuel. Prof Roy Curtis and others at Arizona State University Biodesign Institute (USA), have genetically modified the common cyanobacteria to produce oil as well as excrete oil as a byproduct of their normal lifecycle. In this way oil is produced from a living organism that does not need extraction, and does not kill the organism.
Scientists including from LS9, the company founded by Prof Church is now hoping to make business out of these kinds of things. They have engineered e, coli bacteria to produce biodiesel from sugar in plants, which they can chew up, so that they produce more fat than it would normally do.
Biodiesel refers to vegetable oil or animal fat-based oil ie oil from living things. Genetic engineering of microbes means the organism’s genetic information in its DNA is altered.
The only problem so far is that these bugs while doing amazing things when coddled up a cosy lab, they can get extremely uncooperative when put in a giant factory. But it is only a matter of time before they would be coaxed to do what they are engineered to do.